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鋼銼
 新聞資訊 =>  

低碳鋼銼刀熱處理工藝

發布日期:[2018-10-25]    共閱[2105]次
    鋼銼是一種廣泛應用于各產業部門的手工工具,長期使用碳素工
具鋼制作。這嚴重影響了銼刀制造業采用各種成形加工方法的可
能性,從銼刀的實際使用情況來看,銼刀是一種不重磨的手工刀
具,它要求有良好的切削性能、排屑性能,以及較高的使用壽
命。為此,銼刀的齒峰應具有足夠的硬度、強度、抗疲勞性,以
及較高的耐磨性和耐蝕性,而對其心部,則要求有較好的韌性和
抗沖擊性能。而現用的碳素工具鋼不完全具有這種外強內韌的特
性。

Steel file is a kind of hand tool widely used in various
industries, and is made of carbon tool steel for a long
time. This seriously affects the possibility of file
manufacturing industry to adopt a variety of forming
processing methods. From the actual use of the file, the
file is a kind of hand tool without re-grinding, it
requires good cutting performance, chip removal
performance, and higher service life. For this reason,
the tooth peak of the file should have enough hardness,
strength, fatigue resistance, as well as high wear
resistance and corrosion resistance, and for its center,
it requires better toughness and impact resistance.
However, the carbon tool steels used nowadays do not have
such characteristics as external strength and internal
toughness.

所以,長期以來,國內外鋼銼業界的廣大工程技術人員不斷探尋
新材料、新技術、新工藝。早在1972年羅馬尼亞曾研制出用低碳
鋼進行表面液體碳氮共滲的方法來制造銼刀。我國也曾在20世紀
60年代至80年代進行過用低碳鋼制作銼刀的試驗。這些方法或者
是因為有嚴重公害,或者是因為效益欠佳、性能不高,都沒有得
到廣泛應用,以致至今國內外廣大銼刀業仍首選采用T12或T13制
造。而北京某廠研制出的低碳鋼鋼銼碳氮共滲新工藝,值得借
鑒。

Therefore, for a long time, the vast number of engineers
and technicians in the steel filing industry at home and
abroad have been exploring new materials, new technology
and new technology. As early as 1972, Romania developed a
low carbon steel surface liquid carbonitriding method to
manufacture files. China also conducted tests on making
carbon files from low carbon steel between 1960s and 80s.
These methods have not been widely used either because of
serious pollution, or because of poor efficiency and low
performance. So far, the filing industry at home and
abroad still preferred to use T12 or T13. A new process
for carbonitriding of low carbon steel files made by a
factory in Beijing is worth learning from.

1)鹽浴碳氮共滲配方及熱處理工藝。中溫、高效、無毒的碳氮共
滲劑配方(質量分數)為:

1) salt bath carbonitriding formula and heat treatment
process. Medium temperature, high efficiency, non-toxic
carbonitriding agent formulation (mass fraction) is:

75%BaCl2+20% NaCl+3.5% Na2CO3+1.5% NaCNO(氰酸鈉)

75%BaCl2+20% NaCl+3.5% Na2CO3+1.5% NaCNO (sodium cyanate)

在工作狀態鹽浴進行的主要化學反應為

The main chemical reactions in the salt bath are in the
working state.

2NaCNO+O2→Na2CO3 +2[N] +CO

2NaCNO+O2 to Na2CO3 +2[N] +CO

4NaCNO→2NaCN+Na2CO3 +CO+2[N]

4NaCNO to 2NaCN+Na2CO3 +CO+2[N]

2NaCN+Na2CO3→2Na2O+2[N]+2[C]+CO

2NaCN+Na2CO3 to 2Na2O+2[N]+2[C]+CO

2NaCN+3Na2CO3→4Na2O+2[N]+5CO

2NaCN+3Na2CO3 to 4Na2O+2[N]+5CO

2CO→CO2+[C]

2CO to CO2+[C]

鹽浴中的BaCl2能促進滲碳并抑制產生NaCN:

BaCl2 in salt bath can promote carburization and inhibit
the production of NaCN:

2NaCN+BaCl2→2NaCl+Ba(CN)2

2NaCN+BaCl2 to 2NaCl+Ba (CN) 2

Ba(CN)→BaCN2(氰胺基化鋇)+[C]

Ba (CN) to BaCN2 (cyanamide barium) +[C]

鹽浴中的BaCl2還能與鹽浴中存在的Na2CO3直接作用,生成穩定的
BaCO3與BaO,以及一部分NaCNO:

BaCl2 in salt bath can also react directly with Na2CO3 in
salt bath to form stable BaCO3 and BaO, and some NaCNO:

BaCl2+Na2CO3→BaCO3 +2NaCl

BaCl2+Na2CO3 to BaCO3 +2NaCl

BaCN2+Na2CO3→BaO+2NaCNO

BaCN2+Na2CO3 to BaO+2NaCNO

生成的BaCO3與BaO可通過撈渣去除。成分中NaCl的存在,主要是
為了調節鹽浴的熔點,增加鹽浴的流動性,從而加強傳熱過程。

The generated BaCO3 and BaO can be removed by slag
removal. The presence of NaCl in the composition is
mainly to regulate the melting point of the salt bath,
increase the fluidity of the salt bath, and thus enhance
the heat transfer process.

共滲溫度820~840℃,共滲時間視銼刀規格大小及具體要求而定,
長250mm的銼刀加熱20~ 30min可得到0.4~0.5mm厚的滲層;滲后直
接淬水,低溫回火。按上述熱處理工藝制造的銼刀的切削性能和
力學性能超過T12A鋼制造的同規格的銼刀。從金相分析可見,滲
層最高碳質量分數達0. 8%~0.9%,大量的極細顆粒的碳氮化合物
彌散分布在細針馬氏體及殘留奧氏體之間,形成了高硬度和高疲
勞強度的表面硬化層。

The infiltration temperature is 820 ~ 840 C, the
infiltration time depends on the size of the file and the
specific requirements. The infiltration layer of 0.4 ~
0.5mm thickness can be obtained by heating the 250mm file
for 20 ~ 30 minutes, and quenching water directly after
infiltration and tempering at low temperature. The
cutting performance and mechanical properties of the
files manufactured according to the above heat treatment
process exceed those of the same specification
manufactured by T12A steel. The metallographic analysis
shows that the highest carbon content of the carburized
layer is 0.8%~0.9%. A large number of ultra-fine
particles of carbonitrides are dispersed between fine-
needle martensite and retained austenite, forming a
surface hardening layer with high hardness and high
fatigue strength.

2)低碳鋼銼刀的性能。銼刀是一種不可重磨的刀具。所以就重磨
性而言,它是一種一次性使用的刀具,這就要求它有足夠的切削
性能、排屑性能、耐磨性能,以及抗疲勞性能。

2) the performance of low carbon steel files. A file is a
non regrinding tool. So in terms of regrindability, it is
a disposable tool, which requires it to have sufficient
cutting performance, chip removal performance, wear
resistance, and fatigue resistance.

顯然,切削性能、耐磨性能與它的齒面硬度關系極大。圖3-3給出
了20鋼銼刀經上述工藝碳氮共滲后,預冷一直接淬火后得到的齒
面硬度(用超聲波硬度計檢測)與處理時間關系曲線。從圖可
知,僅浸液15~ 30min,齒面硬度即可達到鋼銼所需求的最佳硬度
范圍63~ 65HRC。

Obviously, cutting performance and wear resistance have
great relationship with its hardness. Fig. 3-3 shows the
relationship between tooth surface hardness (measured by
ultrasonic hardness meter) and treatment time of 20 steel
file after carbonitriding and quenching. It can be seen
from the diagram that the hardness of tooth surface can
reach the optimum range of 63 ~ 65HRC required by steel
file only after 15 ~ 30min of immersion.

銼刀的切削性能與切削齒的齒形有極大關系,由于T12A鋼的原始
硬度較高,所以用剁刀片剁齒時齒深很難加工到很深,而用低碳
鋼可使齒深增加13.3%,從而改善了切削性能。

The cutting performance of the file is closely related to
the tooth profile of the cutting teeth. Because of the
high original hardness of T12A steel, it is difficult to
cut the teeth very deep with a razor blade. The cutting
performance can be improved by increasing the tooth depth
by 13.3% with low carbon steel.

共滲時間同硬度的關系

Relationship between CO diffusion time and hardness

圖3-3 共滲時間同硬度的關系

Fig. 3-3 relationship between infiltration time and
hardness

表3-3給出了20鋼經該工藝碳氮共滲30min所制造出來的銼刀部分
性能和目前用的T12A鋼銼刀的部分性能對比情況,并列出了世界
名牌銼刀DOUBLE FILES和前蘇聯標準( FOCT)的主要性能。從這些
對比數據可以發現,用低碳鋼制的銼刀,質量很高,以致超過了
世界名牌產品。人們從實踐中認識到,銼刀的眾多質量指標,綜
合反映在兩點:一是萬次銼削試驗中的銼屑克數,二是客戶的信
息反饋,用戶滿意就是高質量的體現。

Table 3-3 gives a comparison of the partial properties of
the file made of 20 steel by carbonitriding for 30
minutes with those of T12A steel, and lists the main
properties of the world famous file DOUBLE FILES and
Former Soviet Union Standard (FOCT). From these
comparative data, it can be found that the quality of the
file made of low carbon steel is so high that it exceeds
the world famous brand products. It is realized from
practice that many quality indexes of file are reflected
in two aspects: the number of filing grains in ten
thousand filing experiments, and the feedback of
customers"information. Customer satisfaction is the
embodiment of high quality.

表3-3 250mm粗扳銼刀銼切性能比較

Table 3-3 comparison of file performance of 250mm rough
wrench file

250mm粗扳銼刀銼切性能比較

Comparison of file performance of 250mm rough wrench file

采用的試塊硬度為170~187HBW,截面尺寸為10mm×25mm,壓重為
12. 5kg的標準銼削試驗規范。從實測數據可見,低碳鋼碳氮共滲
銼刀,其萬次銼削銼屑克數不僅比原來的T12A鋼銼刀提高近
100%,而且超過了名牌DOUB-LE FILES銼刀28%,也超過了前蘇聯
標準。

The hardness of the specimen is 170-187 HBW, the
sectional dimension is 10 mm *25 mm, and the pressure is
12.5 kg. From the measured data, it can be seen that the
number of cuttings per 10000 times of low carbon steel
carbonitriding file is not only 100% higher than the
original T12A steel file, but also 28% higher than the
famous DOUB-LE FILES file and the former Soviet Union
standard.

3)結論。

3) conclusion.

①采用低碳鋼碳氮共滲工藝制作銼刀較原T12A鋼鹽浴淬火,僅材
料費一項就可降低總成本25%左右,經濟效益是可觀的。

(1) Compared with the salt bath quenching of T12A steel,
the total cost of the file made by carbonitriding process
of low carbon steel can be reduced by about 25% with only
one item of material cost. The economic benefit is
considerable.

②低碳鋼銼刀,大大簡化了銼刀的制造工藝,又可以使總成本下
降15%。

(2) the low carbon steel file greatly simplifies the
manufacturing process of the file and reduces the total
cost by 15%.

③新工藝將大幅度提高產品的質量和成品率,使一級品率由目前
的70%提高到90%,從根本上消除了變形開裂,由此而可使總成本
下降15%左右,從而使企業經濟效益大大提高。

(3) The new process will greatly improve the quality of
the products and the yield of finished products, so that
the rate of first-grade products will be increased from
70% to 90%, and the deformation cracking will be
eliminated fundamentally. Thus the total cost will be
reduced by about 15%, thus greatly improving the economic
benefits of enterprises.

 

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