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鋼銼
 新聞資訊 =>  

T12鋼銼刀快速球化工藝怎么處理?

發布日期:[2018-10-25]    共閱[3512]次
    國內鋼銼基本上都是用T12鋼制造。銼刀鍛坯必須經過球化退火才
能滿足隨后機械加工的要求。雖然高碳鋼的退火被認為是成熟的
傳統工藝,但因其能耗高,周期長(一般需24h/爐),氧化脫碳
嚴重,生產效率低,促使人們對這一工藝的研究和改進。
Domestic steel files are basically made of T12 steel. The
forged billet must be spheroidizing to meet the
requirements of subsequent machining. Although annealing
of high carbon steel is considered to be a mature
traditional process, its high energy consumption, long
cycle (usually 24h / furnace), serious oxidation and
decarbonization, low production efficiency, prompt people
to study and improve this process.
1)球化退火工藝改進的理論依據。
1) the theoretical basis for improving spheroidizing
annealing process.
①根據有關文獻的報導,在常規球化退火的組織中,粒(球)狀
碳化物顆粒數(單位體積內或單位面積上)與加熱奧氏體化時的
剩余碳化物顆粒數相同,由此認為球化退火后的粒(球)狀碳化
物是由剩余碳化物長大而成。這就告訴我們加熱奧氏體化時獲得
的剩余碳化物顆粒數越多,球化后的粒(球)狀碳化物也就越
多,球化越容易。
(1) According to the relevant literature, the number of
granular (spherical) carbide particles in the
conventional spheroidized annealed microstructure is the
same as that of the residual carbide particles in the
austenitized microstructure. It is considered that the
granular (spherical) carbide after spheroidized annealing
is formed by the growth of residual carbide. This tells
us that the more residual carbide particles obtained
during austenitizing, the more spheroidized carbide
particles, and the easier spheroidization.
②有研究證明,球化退火時有了粒狀碳化物的核心只是球化的一
個方面,因為這些剩余碳化物在隨后的奧氏體過冷分解中,既可
以作為共析分解的領先相,促使分解的另一相(α)作為受領相
在其表面上形核,從而形成了共析相的核心,此核心長大的結果
必然是兩相相間交錯分布層片狀珠光體(PL)。此外,還有一種可
能,就是剩余碳化物粒化的現存的核心,但分解的另一相(α)
卻不作為受領相,即不優先在碳化物表面上形核,而是在過冷奧
氏體內部深處單獨形核,這種奧氏體分解產物的兩個相分別獨立
形核(不構成共析體核心)時,所造成的母相奧氏體內碳濃度分
布與共析轉變時不同,它將促使碳化物和α相各自單獨呈球狀長
大,從而得到粒(球)狀珠光體( Ps)。奧氏體化時得到的碳濃度
不均勻的奧氏體可明顯加速Ps的形成過程。
(2) It has been proved that the nucleus of granular
carbides during spheroidizing annealing is only one
aspect of spheroidization, because these residual
carbides can be used as the leading phase of eutectoid
decomposition in subsequent subcooled decomposition of
austenite, and the other phase (a) of decomposition can
be nucleated on its surface as the receiving phase, thus
forming the eutectoid phase. The core of this core growth
is necessarily the interphase and intergranular
distribution of lamellar pearlite (PL). In addition, it
is also possible that the existing core of residual
carbide granulation, but the decomposition of another
phase (a) does not act as the receiving phase, that is,
does not take precedence in nucleating on the surface of
the carbide, but in the depths of the undercooled
austenite alone nucleation, the two phases of the
decomposition product of the austenite nucleate
independently (does not constitute eutectoid). The
distribution of carbon concentration in the parent
austenite is different from that in eutectoid
transformation. It will promote the growth of carbides
and alpha phases in spherical shape respectively, so that
the granular (spherical) pearlite (Ps) can be obtained.
The austenitizing of austenite can accelerate the
formation of Ps obviously.
③加熱過程的控制理論。有研究者根據鋼加熱奧氏體化的轉變圖
和加熱轉變時奧氏體的形成及其內碳濃度變化的原理指出,通過
調整加熱工藝的三個參數(加熱速度、加熱溫度和保溫時間)可
以控制奧氏體狀態,從而滿足前述理論的要求。在理論上控制儀
相消失的溫度,時間以透燒為準。
3. Control theory of heating process. According to the
austenitizing transformation diagram of steel and the
formation of austenite and the change of carbon
concentration in the austenite during heating
transformation, it is pointed out that the austenite
state can be controlled by adjusting the three parameters
of heating process (heating speed, heating temperature
and holding time), so as to meet the requirements of the
above theory. In theory, the temperature of the
disappearance of the instrument is controlled by time.
2)快速球化退火工藝及效果。根據理論研究和現場測試結果,在
不改變退火前后的冷熱加工工藝的情況下,在現有的幾臺不同的
爐內對不同類型和規格的銼刀毛坯進行快速球化退火試驗,結果
見表3-6。球化退火的加熱溫度應根據所測爐子的熱特性確定,而
保溫時間除取決于爐子的熱特性外,還與退火銼刀類型及裝爐量
有關。保溫時間總的來說由原來的5~6. 5h縮短到70~ 90min,降
溫時間(指780℃奧氏體溫度降至球化下限溫度680℃所需的時
間)由原來的9.5~10h減少到4.5~5h,而且無跑溫現象出現。
2) rapid spheroidizing annealing process and effect.
According to the results of theoretical research and
field test, the rapid spheroidizing annealing tests of
different types and specifications of file blanks were
carried out in several existing furnaces without changing
the cold and hot working processes before and after
annealing. The results are shown in Table 3-6. The
heating temperature of spheroidizing annealing should be
determined according to the thermal characteristics of
the furnace, and the holding time depends not only on the
thermal characteristics of the furnace, but also on the
type of annealing file and the amount of furnace. In
general, the holding time is shortened from 5-6.5 h to
70-90 min, and the cooling time is reduced from 9.5-10 h
to 4.5-5 h, and there is no running temperature
phenomenon.
 

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