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鋼銼
 新聞資訊 =>  

T12A鋼銼刀熱處理工藝是什么樣的?

發布日期:[2018-10-25]    共閱[5335]次
    銼刀是一種多刃的切削工具,主要用于銼削硬度在18~58HRC范圍
內的金屬材料,工作中常受到彎曲變形和沖擊,因此要求銼刀在
保證高耐磨性的同時還應具有一定的韌性。我國的銼刀有相當數
量進入國際市場,由于質量不甚優良,其價格僅為國際名牌——
美國雙刀牌銼刀的1/8~1/5。盡管兩者所用材料化學成分相近,但
失效形式完全不同。雙刀牌銼刀主要為正常磨損失效,國產銼刀
則主要為斷齒崩刃等非正常失效,壽命差距很大。為提高國產銼
刀質量,首先對進口高壽命銼刀進行分析解剖,進而針對性地提
出整改措施。
File is a multi-edged cutting tool, mainly used for
filing hardness in the range of 18 ~ 58HRC metal
materials, work is often subject to bending deformation
and impact, so the requirements of the file in order to
ensure high wear resistance at the same time should have
a certain degree of toughness. A considerable number of
Chinese filings have entered the international market.
Because of their poor quality, their prices are only one-
eighth to one-fifth of those of the international famous
brand, the American double-blade file. Although the
chemical composition of the two materials is similar,
their failure modes are completely different. The double-
blade file is mainly normal wear failure, while the
domestic file is mainly abnormal failure, such as broken
teeth and broken edges, and the life gap is very big. In
order to improve the quality of domestic file, firstly,
the imported high-life file is analyzed and dissected,
and then the rectification measures are put forward.
1)雙刀牌銼刀的質量分析。
1) quality analysis of double tool file.
①化學成分。由表3-8可知,雙刀銼刀與國產銼刀的化學成分相
近,所用材料相當于國產T12A,不過微量元素有些差異。
(1) chemical constituents. As can be seen from Table 3-8,
the chemical composition of the double-blade file is
similar to that of the domestic file, and the material
used is equivalent to that of the domestic T12A, but
there are some differences in trace elements.
表3-8 銼刀用鋼化學成分(質量分數) (%)
Table 3-8 chemical composition (mass fraction) of file
steel (%)
銼刀用鋼化學成分(質量分數)
Chemical composition (mass fraction) of steel for file
②銼削試驗。用8in細扁銼作試驗,雙刀牌銼刀的銼削達到一定次
數后,銼削曲線呈平緩狀,表明該銼刀持久性好,使用壽命長,
在達到50萬次時銼齒表面仍保持良好的鋒利的狀態。相反,國產
銼刀銼削一般在達到30萬次以后,斷齒崩刃的現象就大量出現,
不能繼續使用。
Filing test. The experiment with 8-minute thin flat file
shows that the curve of the double-blade file is smooth
after cutting for a certain number of times. It shows
that the file has good durability and long service life,
and the surface of the file teeth remains in a sharp
state when it reaches 500,000 times. On the contrary,
after 300,000 times of domestic filing, a large number of
broken teeth and broken edges appear and can not be
continued to use.
③組織形態及斷口形貌。在雙刀牌銼刀的顯微組織中發現,碳化
顆粒大小不均,相當數量的大顆粒碳化物均勻分布在組織中,且
碳化物顆粒棱角鈍化。在透射電鏡下觀察,基體組織為隱晶馬氏
體,其中有大量的板條馬氏體。國產銼刀的顯微組織是片狀馬氏
體和彌散的碳化物小顆粒。
(3) histomorphology and fracture morphology. In the
microstructure of the double-blade file, it was found
that the size of carbide particles was uneven, a
considerable number of large particles of carbide were
uniformly distributed in the microstructure, and the
edges and corners of carbide particles were passivated.
Under transmission electron microscope, the matrix
structure is cryptocrystalline martensite, and there are
many lath martensite. The microstructure of domestic
files is lamellar martensite and dispersed carbide
particles.
④質量分析。雙刀牌銼刀和國產銼刀用材的化學成分相近,僅僅
是組織結構的差異,即碳化物形狀與基體組織的形態不同。雙刀
牌銼刀所獲得的這種特殊組織結構,正是其質量好的主要原因。
T12A鋼是過共析高碳鋼,脆性較大。常規的熱處理都是以獲得細
小彌散的碳化物為目標,改善其韌性以得到強韌化效果。然而對
這種特殊工作條件下工作的工件,耐磨性是第一位的,要得到良
好的銼削性能,在組織中保持一定數量的大顆粒碳化物是很有效
的方法。只是這樣勢必會使本來就很脆的材料的韌性進一步下
降。因此,還必須通過熱處理來獲得韌性極好的板條馬氏體并將
碳化物顆粒的棱角鈍化。
(4) quality analysis. The chemical composition of the
double-blade file is similar to that of the domestic
file, but the difference of the structure is only the
difference of the carbide shape and the matrix structure.
The special structure of the double knives file is the
main reason for its good quality. T12A steel is
hypereutectoid high carbon steel with high brittleness.
Conventional heat treatment aims to obtain fine dispersed
carbides and improve their toughness in order to obtain
strength and toughness. However, the abrasion resistance
of the workpiece under this special working condition is
the first. To obtain good filing performance, it is an
effective method to keep a certain amount of large
particles of carbide in the structure. Only in this way
will the toughness of the material which is already
fragile become lower. Therefore, the lath martensite with
excellent toughness must be obtained by heat treatment
and the edges and corners of carbide particles must be
passivated.
由上述分析可知,如果采用某種特殊的熱處理方法,獲得與雙刀
牌銼刀相近似的顯微組織結構,必將使國產銼刀的使用壽命大大
提高。
It can be seen from the above analysis that if a special
heat treatment method is adopted to obtain the
microstructure similar to that of the double-blade file,
the service life of the domestic file will be greatly
improved.
2)銼刀熱處理工藝。
2) file heat treatment process.
①預處理工藝。為了達到上述強韌化的效果,采用了如圖3-5所示
的兩段等溫球化退火工藝,改變了銼刀的原始組織狀態。首先把
鋼加熱至比Accm(820℃)稍高的840~850℃的高溫,適當保溫,使
組織中只保留為數不多的碳化物顆粒,且奧氏體組織不均勻。然
后進入第一階段——球化退火階段,在Ac1( 730℃)以上的等溫階
段較短,不均勻奧氏體中未溶碳化物和高濃度碳偏聚區都將成為
大顆粒碳化物萌生長大的核心。同時在周邊組織中碳濃度降低,
為淬火后得到板條馬氏體做好組織準備。當進入第二階段球化退
火時,即在Ac1以下等溫,碳化物進一步擴散、析出、聚集球化,
使得大顆粒碳化物進一步球化長大,并新生許多彌散分布的小顆
粒碳化物。這樣就形成了一定數量的大顆粒碳化物及大量低碳的
基體組織。這種先期的組織為最終熱處理創造了良好的組織條
件。
(1) pretreatment process. In order to achieve the above
strengthening and toughening effect, the two-stage
isothermal spheroidizing annealing process as shown in
Fig. 3-5 was adopted to change the original
microstructure of the file. Firstly, the steel was heated
to 840 ~ 850 C higher than that of Accm (820 C), so that
only a few carbide particles were retained in the
microstructure and the austenite structure was
inhomogeneous. Then the first stage, spheroidizing
annealing stage, is shorter than the isothermal stage
above Ac1 (730 C). Undissolved carbide and high
concentration carbon segregation zone in inhomogeneous
austenite will become the core of large carbide sprouting
and growth. At the same time, the carbon concentration in
the surrounding tissues is reduced, so as to prepare the
lath martensite after quenching. When entering the second
stage of spheroidizing annealing, i.e. below Ac1, the
carbide further diffuses, precipitates, aggregates and
spheroidizes, resulting in further spheroidizing and
growth of large particles of carbide, and the formation
of many small particles of dispersed carbide. This
resulted in the formation of a large number of large
granular carbides and a large number of low carbon matrix
structures. This pre organization creates a good
organizational condition for final heat treatment.
T12A鋼兩段球化退火工藝
Two stage spheroidizing annealing process of T12A steel
圖3-5 T12A鋼兩段球化退火工藝
Fig. 3-5 two stage spheroidizing annealing process for
T12A steel
②最終熱處理工藝。采用快速加熱短時保溫的熱處理工藝。由于
加熱溫度較低,保溫時間短,碳化物顆粒大小不均,溶解速度不
同,故得到成分極不均勻的奧氏體和一定數量的碳化物。淬火后
組織結構與美國雙刀牌銼刀相近,為一定數量的板條馬氏體和較
多的隱晶馬氏體,碳化物大小不均,且棱角鈍化。
(2) the final heat treatment process. Heat treatment
process with quick heating and short time insulation is
adopted. Because the heating temperature is low, holding
time is short, carbide particle size is uneven,
dissolution rate is different, so a very uneven
composition of austenite and a certain number of
carbides. The microstructure after quenching is similar
to that of American double-blade file. It is lath
martensite and more cryptocrystalline martensite. The
size of carbide is uneven and the edges and corners are
passivated.
國產T12A鋼銼刀按上述工藝處理后,斷口形貌與雙刀牌銼刀相
似,出現了大量的淺口韌窩和撕裂棱,而傳統工藝處理的銼刀斷
口形貌基本為準解理和沿晶型。銼削試驗都能達到50萬次以上,
達到雙刀牌銼刀水平,失效形式為正常磨損失效,基本消除斷
齒、崩刃等非正常失效現象。
The fracture morphology of T12A steel file made in China
is similar to that of double-blade file. A large number
of shallow dimples and tearing edges appear. However, the
fracture morphology of T12A steel file treated by
traditional process is quasi-cleavage and intergranular.
Filing test can reach more than 500,000 times, reaching
the level of double-blade file, the failure form is
normal wear failure, basically eliminating abnormal
failure such as tooth breakage, edge breakage and so on.
 

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